How Does the Severity of a Learning Disability Affect Working Memory Performance?
Institute of Psychiatry, Kings College London, UK. L.Henry@iop.kcl.ac.uk
Working memory performance was examined in children aged 11-12 years who had borderline, mild, and moderate learning disabilities. Comparisons with children of average abilities were used to determine whether those with more severe learning disabilities had greater impairments in working memory.
Seven measures of working memory span were used to assess temporary phonological short-term storage (digit span, word span), temporary visuo-spatial short-term storage (pattern span, spatial span), and temporary short-term storage with additional processing, or central executive, demands (listening span. odd one out span, reverse digit span). Children with mild and moderate learning disabilities were impaired on all measures of working memory compared to children of average abilities. Children with borderline learning disabilities were just as good as children with average abilities on visuo-spatial and complex span tasks, but showed an impairment on phonological span tasks. Children with moderate learning disabilities were indistinguishable from children with mild learning disabilities on simple span tasks, but were significantly poorer than the mild group on the more demanding complex span tasks. For the group as a whole, working memory was strongly related to mental age.
PMID: 11594349 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
Follow-up Study of Learning Disabled Children Treated with Neurofeedback or Placebo
Becerra J, Fernandez T, Harmony T, Caballero MI, Garcia F, Fernandez-Bouzas A, Santiago-Rodriguez E, Prado-Alcala RA.
Universidad Autonoma de Queretaro, Mexico.
This report is a 2-year follow-up to a previous study describing positive behavioral changes and a spurt of EEG maturation with theta/alpha neurofeedback (NFB) training in a group of Learning Disabled (LD) children. In a control paired group, treated with placebo, behavioral changes were not observed and the smaller maturational EEG changes observed were easily explained by increased age. Two years later, the EEG maturational lag in Control Group children increased, reaching abnormally high theta Relative Power values; the absence of positive behavioral changes continued and the neurological diagnosis remained LD. In contrast, after 2 years EEG maturation did continue in children who belonged to the Experimental Group with previous neurofeedback training; this was accompanied by positive behavioral changes, which were reflected in remission of LD symptoms.
PMID: 16929704 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]